What is Cryptocurrency in Simple Words





What is Cryptocurrency ?

Cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual currency that can be used online in exchange for goods and services.

 

 In other words you can use cryptocurrencies like other currencies to buy or sell things and services, unlike other currencies it is not physical but digital or virtual.
In simple words "Cryptocurrency is a new form of digital money".
Cryptocurrency uses cryptography to provide secure online transactions, that's why it is called cryptocurrency.
Cryptography is a technology that keeps information safe and hidden from the attackers.
Cryptocurrency uses blockchain technology which is decentralized, secure and spread across many computers, that manage and record the transactions of cryptocurrencies.

Blockchain is a decentralized and distributed databases system. it is a new way to share data and make transactions more secure, transparent and cheaper than before.
So now you know that cryptocurrency is a new form of digital money. It uses cryptography and blockchain technology. but you might still have this question in mind that what exactly is  money? So let's briefly discuss about it. 

What is Money?

Before the existence of money, there was  system of exchange  called Barter System.

Barter System 

Barter System is the exchange of goods or services for other goods or services without using money.
For example: If you had apples and wanted to buy oranges. you will had to find someone who had oranges and wanted to exchange it for the apples. You both agreed on how many apples  will be exchanged for how many oranges, and the trade is done between you two. The same will go for services to services and services to goods. Barter System was not efficient, there were many many problems and issues so they come with solution which is called metal coins. 

Metal Coins 

 
Metal objects were introduced and used as money or form of exchanged. Those coins mostly made of mixture of silver and gold. It had different sizes and different stamps which represented its values.
metal was better option to use because of its availability, easy to work with, and could  be recycled easily. but still it was not the final solution, as the time passed,  they come with another one.

Gold Backed Paper Currency



It was in the form of paper notes and was backed by government or bank's  promised to exchange it for a certain amount of silver or gold. It was also called representative money.

For example: If you had $100 note, the government or the bank would be responsible to gave you the same amount of gold whenever you want it in the return of your note. Thy had to keep the same amount of gold ready for you in case you want it back. your paper currency was just representing the gold you won with government or bank.  

Fiat Money

Gold backed paper currency has now been replaced by fiat money. It has no more backed by the gold or silver but only by the government you trust. It is in the form of notes and coins and its worked so perfectly for entries, but then the world changed with invention and usage of internet on daily basis. we are now living in digital time and in a digital world, and we need digitized currency too. so they come with solution called digital money or digital currency.

Digital Currency

Digital Currency or Digital Money only available in digital or electronic form. it does not has any physical from. For example: your credit card, debit card or your online banking system only transfer digital data from one account to another. There is no physically transfer of money happening. its only the numbers decreasing in one account and increasing in another. It is also called electronic money, electronic currency, or cyber cash.

Cryptocurrency

Cryptocurrency comes in the category of digital currency but it is very very different from normal digital currency.  lets see in a very detailed way the difference between cryptocurrency and the normal currency.

Difference Between Regular Money and Cryptocurrency

How is cryptocurrency different from regular money?  let's answer that age old question and see what makes them so different from one another.
  • Manage: Regular money manages and issues by the central government, while cryptocurrency issues and manage by network of computers that run open source code.
  • Supply: The central government controls the supply of regular money and can produce more when necessary. While cryptocurrency has limited supply.
  • Physical Form: Regular money has a physical form like coin or paper note, while cryptocurrency it's not physical but digital or virtual.
  • Centralized: Regular money is centralized and controlled by the law and banks, while cryptocurrency is decentralized and not controlled by any single entity or government.
  • Value: Regular money values are determined by the market and regulation, while the cryptocurrency value is determined by the economics law of demand and supply .
  • Security: Regular money is secured by third parties like banks and governments, cryptocurrency is secured by the network of computers around the world that verify every transaction.
  • Use: You can use regular money to buy things typically in the country that issues it, while cryptocurrency doesn't have any border, you can use it anywhere in the world as long as the merchants accept it.

Types of Cryptocurrency

There are two types of cryptocurrencies, one called coins or altcoins and another is called tokens, let's explore the difference.
  • Coins: Coin refers to cryptocurrency that has its own separate, standalone blockchain. Its mean coins operate on its own blockchain, independently of any other platform. There are thousands of coins available, and every single day new coins have been introduced to the cryptocurrency market. Bitcoin(BTC) is the first and well known coin around the world.
  • Tokens: Token refers to cryptocurrency that is built on top of an existing blockchain. Token does not have its own separate, standalone blockchain but hosted by another blockchain platform, such as Etheruam(ETH). Just like coins, there are thousands of tokens available in the cryptocurrency market today, and each day new token  trying to make their place in the cryptocurrency market.

Key Features of Cryptocurrency

  • Digital or Virtual: Cryptocurrencies only exist on computers and other devices which are connected to the internet. There is no real form of cryptocurrencies like metal coins or paper notes.
  • Decentralized: Cryptocurrencies don't use central server or central system to store the record of Cryptocurrencies, but it uses decentralized network which means the records are stored across thousands of computers on the internet.
  • Peer To Peer: Cryptocurrencies users can directly send and receive cryptocurrencies online without the involvement of third parties. The users don't need to use the services of banks, online payment services like PayPal etc.
  • Anonymous: Cryptocurrency users don’t have to provide personal information to own and use cryptocurrencies. they don’t have to provide their real-world identities. Users only need a wallet address, which is enough for making any type of small or large transactions.
  • Encrypted: Cryptocurrency uses cryptography to provide secure online transactions. Each user has special codes that secure their information, which makes it almost impossible to be hacked or to be accessed by other users.
  • Immutable: cryptocurrencies transactions are immutable, which means once the transaction has been recorded on the blockchain, it is impossible for anyone to change or delete it.
  • Fast: Cryptocurrencies transitions are extremely fast , once the user initiates the transaction, it is immediately shared on the network and confirmed within a couple of minutes.
  • Single Spending: cryptocurrency completely eliminates the possibility of double spending. It's impossible for the crypto user to spend one cryptocurrency with many users in attempt to purchase goods or services.
  • Global: Cryptocurrency users can send and receive cryptocurrency from any part of the world at any time. There are no limitations and no restrictions on sending or receiving cryptocurrency from other countries or continents.

Benefits of The Cryptocurrency

  • No Middle Man: In our everyday business dealing, we need the help of agents, brokers and other legal representatives. We also go through complex paper works, fees,commissions and number of terms and conditions which make a simple task complicated and expensive. One of the benefits of cryptocurrency is cutting out the middleman. It provides one to one transaction on a peer-to-peer network. This leads to clarity, accountability, less confusion and eliminates the involvement of unnecessary third parties and unnecessary expenses.
  • Accessibility: As long as you are connected to the internet, you have access to your account. Regardless of wherever you are in the world, you can spend and manage your cryptocurrency on your computer, laptop, or smartphone.
  • Lower Fee: Cryptocurrency transactions fees are much lower than transaction fees of credit cards, online banking and other online services. If cryptocurrency is not exchanged or spent, there are no service charges like most banks have.
  • Fraud Reduction: Once a payment is made with cryptocurrency, it cannot be reversed.This is different from credit card payments, which can be reversed using charge backs, a feature often exploited by fraudsters.
  • More confidential: Each cryptocurrency transaction is a unique exchange between two parties, which protects users from issues like identity theft.
  • Easier International Trade: Cryptocurrency is not subject to the exchange rates, interest rate, transactions charges, or other limitations imposed by a specific country. It can be used at an international level without experiencing any of these problems. In other words, it saves a lot of time and money which otherwise would be spent in transferring money from one country to another.
  • Transparency: While the users of the cryptocurrency are anonymous but all the cryptocurrency transactions are stored on an open ledger on the blockchain. This means the data or the records of transactions are available to anyone at any time to view.

How Cryptocurrency Works in Simple Words

As you know there is no centralized system in the cryptocurrency world, transactions happen one-to-one directly between two parties on a peer-to-peer system, and recorded forever on a blockchain.

So the question is, how does it happen? And the answer is, through a software or an app called “cryptocurrency wallet”.

Cryptocurrency Wallet is a software or an app where you store and manage your cryptocurrencies. There are many cryptocurrency wallets available, you can choose which one suits your requirements.

To send, receive, and monitor your cryptocurrencies you need to download and install a cryptocurrency wallet. Once you register and login to the wallet for the first time, the wallet will generate a unique public address (public key) and a private key.

Note: Never ever share your wallet private key with anyone. Just remember who owns the private key of the wallet, s\he owns the cryptocurrency associated with that key.

So the whole transactions happen using the public address. When you want to send cryptocurrency to someone you need their public address, and if you want to receive cryptocurrency you share your public address with them. And that's it, just enter the wallet public address, and the amount you want to transfer, and press the send button.

Once the transaction happens, it broadcast to the cryptocurrency’s network and will be added to the public ledger through the process called mining. All the users of cryptocurrency can access the ledger through a software and can see the amount of the transaction, but they can't see who transfered to whom. So in simple words, this is how cryptocurrency works.

Brief History of Cryptocurrency

On 31st of October 2008, a man or group of people by the name of Satoshi Nakamoto published the white paper called Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System, describing the functionality of the Bitcoin blockchain network. Satoshi Nakamoto's identity still remains a mystery till the present day.

On 3rd of January 2009, Satoshi Nakamoto mined the first block of the bitcoin network. The first mined block is also known as the Genesis Block.

On 2nd of may 2010, The first purchase with the bitcoin was recorded. It was purchased for 2 pizzas for 10,000 BTC. This day is still celebrated as Bitcoin Pizza Day.

In March 2010, the first cryptocurrency exchange was introduced by the name of bitcoinmarket.com.

On 30th of July 2015, the Ethereum network was launched. It brought smart contracts and ERC-20 Token to the cryptocurrency world. Cryptoassets that are created through Ethereum’s smart contracts are known as ERC-20 tokens.

In August 2015, First Initial Offering (ICO) took place. Augur ICO used the Ethereum network’s smart contract.
From there on the cryptocurrency world has not stopped since. Each and everyday new crypto assets, coins and tokens are joining the cryptocurrency market. Currently more than 2500 cryptocurrency exists and is still increasing.



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